Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Australian census 2016 - tracing New England's decline over time

The 2016 ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) census allows you to sort regionally. The results summarised in the following table provide a snapshot of New England's continued structural decline.

The regions selected cover the boundaries recommended by the Nicholas Royal Commission boundaries that were used in the 1967 plebiscite. They exclude some western areas that form parts of other statistical divisions.  .

To put the numbers in the table into historical perspective:
  • In 1911, New England's population was about 429,000. In that year, the NSW population was 1,699,376 (New England 25.7%), Australia's population 4,573,786 (New England 9.37%). In 1911, the population of Queensland was 623,123, South Australia 419,392 and Western Australia 293,923. The initial new state boundaries excluded the Hunter. The Cohen Royal Commission (1924) estimated the population in that initial area at 359,000, so more than WA and a bit behind South Australia.
  • By 1950 with decentralisation and separation agitation relaunching, the NSW population had increased to 3,242,057 with a significant proportion of that growth in Sydney. The Queensland population had increased to 1,205,418, South Australia to 722,843, WA to 572,649. I haven't calculated precise figures for New England, but it was something around 700,000. The area had declined as a proportion of the NSW population, had fallen significantly behind Queensland, but was still level pegging with South Australia and well ahead of WA.
  • By 1961 when Operation Seventh State was launched leading up to the 1967 plebiscite, New South Wales' population had increased to 3,951,65, again with Sydney attracting the lion's share of the growth. The Queensland population had jumped to 1,540,251, South Australia to 979,351 and WA to 755,213. I can't find my reference with New England's population, but I think it was around 760,000. Further down as a proportion of NSW, now well behind South Australia in total, but still level pegging with Western Australia. 
  • If we now track forward to the statistics shown in the table, you can see that New England's relative decline has continued. In 2011, its population of 1,371,776 was 6.38% of Australia's population, declining to 5.89% in 2016 even though the total population had increased to 1,425,728.. In 2011, its share of the NSW population had dropped to 19.83%, falling further to 19.06% in 2016. In 2016 South Australia, often considered something of an economic basket case, had a population of 1,676,653.   
In addition to these higher level changes, there have been major distributional changes. These are discussed following the table.  .

New England Comparative Population Statistics

% of Australia
% of NSW
% of New England
% of Australia
% of NSW
% of New England
% increase over 2011




Greater Sydney


New England North West
Richmond Tweed
Coffs Harbour-Grafton
Mid North Coast
Hunter Valley exc Newcastle
Newcastle Lake Macquarie
Total New England



There have been important distributional changes within these aggregate figures over time. 

Up to the end of the seventies, the inland and coastal populations within New England outside the Hunter were broadly in balance. Then came the sea-change phenomenon which led to rapid growth in the coastal populations.To a degree, this growth was unstable and has now slowed because jobs did not follow the growth, leading to increased poverty. .

In 2011, the North Coast population reached 597,770, up slightly to 600,071 in 2016. Stagnation in the inland population meant that from rough balance, the New England North West population fell to 31.49% of the coastal population in 2011, down to 30.96% in 2016. 

The area was affected by fragmentation too from outside forces. The growth of Brisbane and the Gold Coast conurbation helped drive growth in the Richmond and especially the Tweed Rive Valleys. By 2016, the Richmond-Tweed population had grown to 245,164 or 17.2% of the New England population, roughly equaling the inland New England population including the Upper Hunter. 

In the south, two drive variables came into play. Sydney's growth extended into the Lower Hunter While Newcastle suffered from losses associated with the industrial restructuring of the 1990s including the closure of the BHP as well as Sydney blindness, its closeness to Sydney, its life style opportunities and the rise of coal mining and tourism all contributed to growth in Lake Macquarie, Newcastle and the Llower Hunter. The growth was lower than Sydney's, but high enough to increase the Hunter and especially the Lower Hunter's share of the New England population. 

In 1911, the population of Newcastle and the main nearby towns including Maitland and Cessnock was 71,000 or 16.5%  of New England's population.   In 2016, Newcastle and Lake Macquarie on their own totaled 25.96% of the New England population. The Hunter Valley as a whole totaled 44.88% of the New England population. 

The second southern driver, one not recognised because of border myopia, was the rise of Canberra.

In 1961, the ACT's population was just 76,000, although it had begun to grow rapidly. The population of the ACT plus what is now called the Capital Region, those areas most within Canberra's economic sphere of influence, was less than the inland New England population. In 2016, the ACT's population reached 403,468 with a further 224,288 living the Capital Region for a total population of 627,756. 

The effects have been quite profound, for it has shifted the economic center of gravity south. Lacking any major centre of economic gravity, New England has fragmented, drawn in multiple directions north and south with very little present control over its future.               

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Honest History: Frank Bongiorno reviews Ian Johnstone's Armidale and the Great War

On Honest History, Frank Bongiorno's Armidale and the Great War (review of Johnstone) reviews Ian Johnstone's new book Armidale and the Great War.

It is a very good review, an education in itself, using the book to illustrate some of the many textures of that conflict seen through the lens of a local community.

A lawyer by profession, Ian has a long track record in documenting local history.

I am looking forward to reading the book. However, I do not know how to obtain a copy other than by emailing Ian. I do know the book sells for $65 plus $15 postage.

I will find out and post details here so that those interested can order.

Sunday, September 24, 2017

NERAM's Centenary of Beersheba exhibition

This Friday, 29 September 2017, three new exhibitions open at the New England Regional Art Museum (NERAM)..

The first is the opening of a Centenary of Beersheba exhibition. This post focuses on the first.

A century ago young men from the New England region found themselves on the other side of the world fighting against the Ottoman Turkish army from Egypt to Lebanon.

The new exhibition, Horse Power: Light Horse in Palestine – to Beersheba and beyond, provides an opportunity  o look at the day to day life of these soldiers through their own words. The exhibition will be opened by Max Tavener, President of the Armidale RSL Sub Branch at NERAM at 6pm on Friday 29 September 2017.

“After the Great War commenced in August 1914 there was a rush of enthusiastic volunteers who joined up from communities around our region,” said Robert Heather, Art Museum Director. “Young men from towns like Armidale, Tamworth, Tenterfield, Walcha and Glen Innes were fighting a determined enemy in the rugged, biblical landscape of Jericho, Jerusalem, Megiddo and of course Beersheba. We can only imagine the impact that these experiences had on them at the time and for the rest of their lives.”

“One hundred years later these are locations straight out of today’s headlines as well,” he said. “In 1918 Australian troops were the first to enter the ancient Syrian city of Damascus and were welcomed by the inhabitants of Aleppo as liberators.”

The New England Regional Art Museum has been working with Guest Curator Bill Oates, University Archivist at the University of New England who has been researching and curating the exhibition which will launch the program for the commemorations of the Centenary of the Battle for Beersheba in the New England region, where many of the soldiers in the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade came from.

“Most Australians would have heard about the Battle of Beersheba in October 1917 and the historic charge of the Australian Light Horse one evening to capture the water so desperately needed by the horses and men,” said Bill Oates, exhibition curator. “Fewer people know about the long preparation leading to that moment and the additional year of successful campaigning that followed that day.”

“Many New Englanders served in this campaign and their recollections and collections provide us with detail of the logistics and effort required to reshape the region as the Ottoman Empire was defeated.”

Horse Power draws upon historical collections including the UNE Archive, the 12/16 Hunter River Lancers History Room and loans from the Australian War Memorial, including a painted portrait of Australia leader General Sir Henry Chauvel and a sketchbook by war artist George Lambert, whose painting The Charge of the Australian Light Horse at Beersheba, 1917, became an iconic image of World War One.

The exhibition will include never before exhibited photographs, diaries and memorabilia from local private and family collections which will help tell the story of the deployment to Palestine, the campaign and the historic Battle of Beersheba from a number of perspectives.

The exhibition has been developed as a partnership project between the New England Regional Art Museum and the University of New England and will be on display from 29 September 2017 until Sunday 11 February 2018.


NERAM's Robert Heather has kindly provided the fuller program for the Centenary of Battle of Beersheba public events starting in Armidale this weekend.

Official Centenary of Battle of Beersheba public events in the New England region include:
  • 6.00pm Friday 29 September 2017
Exhibition opening Horse Power: Light Horse in Palestine – to Beersheba and beyond , To be opened by Max Tavener, President, Armidale RSL Sub Branch. New England Regional Art Museum, Kentucky Street, Armidale

  • 10.30am Saturday 7 October 2017
Exhibition tour with curator Bill Oates in Horse Power: Light Horse in Palestine – to Beersheba and beyond, New England Regional Art Museum, Kentucky Street, Armidale

  • 7.00pm Tuesday 31 October 2017
Commemoration Ceremony, A Squadron 12/16 Hunter River Lancers (open to public)
Gaza Training Depot, Allingham Street, Armidale

  • 12.00pm Saturday 4 November 2017
12/16 Hunter River Lancers Church Service
St Peter’s Cathedral, 122 Rusden Street, Armidale

  • 2.00pm Saturday 4 November 2017
Free Public Lecture by UNE Archivist Bill Oates “The road to Beersheba and Damascus”
University of New England and Regional Archives, CB Newling Campus, Kentucky Street, Armidale

Image Provided:
Artist unknown,  Member of the 2nd Remount Unit AIF, training a new horse for Light Horse Units,
Postcard HRL Light Horse Museum Collection

Media enquiries:
Robert Heather, Art Museum Director, New England Regional Art Museum
Tel: 02 6772 5255      Email:

Centenary of Beersheba program enquiries:
WO1 Doug Lennox OAM (RTD), History Room Manager, 12/16 Hunter River Lancers
Mob: 0413 492 572   Email:

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

The rise and rise of the New England Writers' Centre

Under the energetic leadership of writer Sophie Masson, (web site here), the New England Writers' Centre (NEWC) appears to be going from strength to strength.

It's only a few years'ago that the Centre lost its State Government funding.and was forced to let its full time director go. I joined the Board at the time and remember the feeling of gloom that surrounded the Centre's future. It was hard to be positive.

I am no longer a Board member, but I was there during the beginning of the transformation period that has now made the Centre such a force, This was helped by renewed State funding achieved with local member Adam Marshall's support, but this was only possible because the Centre itself was transforming under Sophie's leadership.

Inland Armidale lacks the sex appeal and reach now attached to Byron Bay. With time, economic and social change its prominence has shrunk from the the putative capital of our own New England state to the point that it is sometimes described as just a country town. And yet, somehow, the city survives as a unique university, educational and administrative centre.

Armidale has always been a writers' hub. Relative to its size, the current population is around 23,000, Armidale has more writers than any place in Australia. It has its own tradition, its own writer schools such as the Armidale poets who form part of the broader web of the New England literary tradition. You won't find this tradition referenced in literary writing with its metro focus, but it exists. Armidale is not alone here, of course. The writers of the Northern rivers are also neglected. I think that you would find the same in North Queensland or the Riverina..

The thing that the NEWC does, I think, par excellence, is that it links local writers into the broader networks required to have a chance in the competitive world of literature. There was a period in the dark days when the NEWC focus narrowed to just Armidale. Now the Centre is again extending its reach beyond the city.

Even though I am no longer a Board member, I am just so proud of what the Centre has achieved in recent years.  Well done to all those involved.          

Monday, September 18, 2017

Fly Corporate's growing New England network

It's been interesting watching the growth of Canberra based airline Fly Corporate within New England.

Whereas most previous airline attempts have focused on the Sydney market, Fly Corporate has focused on the Brisbane linkage, progressively adding flights to Brisbane from Coffs Harbour, Armidale, Tamworth, Narrabri, Moree and Inverell. Within Queensland, they also added the Biloela (Thangool) service when Qantaslink pulled out, making Brisbane a key hub. Now the company has added Narrabri-Sydney to their route, marking their first Sydney connection.

There are a number of interesting features about Fly Corporate's growth within New England. Whereas there used to be connections between New England ports and Brisbane, they struggled to survive in the face of thin traffic and rising costs, including those imposed as a consequence of changing regulatory structures, ultimately closing. This had adverse effects. In Armidale, for example, it meant that Queensland students attending school or university did not have direct flight connections.

It seems the economics may have changed a little. It's always seemed to me that Brisbane rather than Sydney was a logical destination for many services, but it was one difficult to access because of uncertain connections. Now, once again, we have a Northern network to Brisbane.

It was also great to see Inverell again get an air service. This gives Inverell people a choice of Brisbane as opposed to an hour half drive to Armidale and then a flight to Sydney. In the days of East West Airlines, both Inverell and Glen Innes had Sydney connections.  



Thursday, September 07, 2017

Warialda's new historical museum

2 September 2017. Opening of the new Warialda Museum
2 September 2017 saw the opening of a new historical museum in Warialda. Supported by the Gwydir Shire Council who provided Masonic Centre for refurbishment,  the museum was developed by the Warialda Historical Museum & Society

The local history and museum movements in New England have long histories.

The last decades of the nineteenth century saw a burgeoning interest in Australian history. Australia as a nation did not yet exist, but each of the colonies wished to promote their own achievements, while there was an evolving sense of national identity.

In 1880, for example, the text books introduced into NSW schools contained a segment on Australian history. That same year saw the founding of the Bulletin magazine. In 1901, the Royal Australian Historical Society was established, publishing its own journal from 1908.

This growing interest spread to the North with local papers playing a key role in promoting the history of their own areas, while settler reminiscences began to appear. In the Clarence Valley, for example, Thomas Bawden, as President of the School of Arts, gave three lectures in 1886 on the early history of Grafton. His collection of newspaper clippings and personal notes eventually filled 63 volumes. By 1906, the Grafton Daily Examiner was calling for the establishment of a local museum.
Display, Warialda Historical Museum
The establishment of the Armidale Teachers’ College in 1928 marked a major step forward. It was to include a museum that Education Minister David Drummond hoped would represent the North to students from the North. To this end, he peppered his Department with minutes demanding that they find the best possible exhibits.

Down in the Clarence in 1931, Sir Earle Page suggested the establishment of a historical records museum, which was named the Clarence River Historical Society with R. C. Law as Secretary. In 1935 the society affiliated with the Royal Australian Historical Society, the first country historical society to do so.

In 1933, Drummond opened the Armidale Municipal Museum, proclaimed as 'the first municipally controlled museum' in the state.
Display Warialda Historical Museum
The museum, Drummond suggested, should be more than just a repository of specimens. To his mind, a country museum should firstly be a place for objects that are 'intimately bound up with the history of the district'; and secondly a place for things 'closely associated with the industries of the district'. He warned that, above all, the museum 'must not be allowed to become a mausoleum or dumping ground for curios'.

In 1936, the Richmond River Historical Society was founded. By 1938, it was publishing its own journal.

The war set the movements back. However, from the 1950s, the growing interest in local, regional and then family history saw the establishment of new history societies and new museums. Now the Warialda Museum is added to the list.

These local museums are very important. They help preserve local history while adding to the attractions of the town for visitors.

Sunday, September 03, 2017

The Western Bundjalung Native Title Decision

The photograph from ABC North Coast shows some of the traditional owners gathered to hear the Federal Court’s decision on the Western Bundjalung Native Title Case.

This post discusses the Federal Courts decision on the West Bundjalung application for Native Title under the Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993. I have given some links within the post, with the major media sources I have drawn from listed at the end of the post. The Federal Legislation is different from the NSW Aboriginal Land Right Act 1983 that, among other things, granted NSW Aboriginal peoples certain land rights and provides for the administration of that land including the NSW Aboriginal Land Council and Local Land Councils.

By way of background especially for international readers, the Bundjalung are one of New England’s biggest language groups whose territory stretched from the Clarence River onto the Northern Tablelands and into what is now Queensland. There are a number of Bundjalung dialects whose speakers occupy major territories within the overall territory.

The map gives an indication of the full Bundjalung territory.

The Decision

Tabulam, 29 August 2017.Around 400 people including traditional owners gathered in a crowded marquee erected on the local racecourse as a temporary courthouse to hear the consent determination delivered in the long-running Western Bundjalung Native Title case.

After a Welcome to Country and traditional smoking ceremony, Federal Court Judge Jayne Jagot delivered her consent judgement. This granted the native title claim, legally recognising the rights and interest of the Western Bundjalung people as traditional owners of the land, including the right to camp, hunt, fish, gather resources and conduct their cultural practices on their country, as well as the right to be consulted on matters including mining applications on their land that affect the management of their land. You can find the full decision here.

The Western Bundjalung determination is the 10th in NSW since the Native Title Act came into force in 1993.

While not very clear, the map provides an indication of the scope of country covered by the determination.  

Western Bundjalung territory extends from the Clarence River at Moleville, north of Grafton, to Carpet Snake Creek, north of Tabulam, and from the Hogarth Range in the east to Bald Rock National Park in the west.

It includes the Aboriginal settlements at Baryulgil, Malabugilmah, Jubullam Village and Jubal. The two main water courses of Western Bundjalung country are the Clarence River and the Rocky River.

The claim area covers more than 5,000 square kilometres and contains 24 national parks, nature reserves and state conservation areas. A total of 820 land identification areas have been granted native title within the Western Bundjalung claim boundary.

This includes all national parks and state forests within the claim perimeter. However, there are some lots within the parks and forests that are not having native title recognised because investigation showed that it was freehold land  which extinguishes native title.

A long and arduous process

The path to the consent determination has been long and complicated.

In the 1990s, some six native title claims were lodged for different portions of land within the Western Bundjalung nation. It wasn't until 2011 that the descendants of about 19 apical (literally sitting at the apex) ancestors from the area united to lodge a combined claim.

From that point, the claimants had to establish that they that they were descended from apical ancestors living within the claim area prior to British settlement. They had also to establish a continuing cultural connection with the land handed down over the generations since the Europeans occupied the land.

To achieve this, a research team supported by the NTSCorp conducted anthropological interviews and undertook research to establish genealogy and cultural connection and continuity. 

Dr Ken Lum, NTSCorp Research Manager, said the group's evidence to prove their continuing connection to country was strong.

"Numerous claimants gave affidavits about the connection to country including information about Dreaming stories and continuing cultural practices such as turtle diving," he said.

In addition to the evidence required to establish the basis of claim, land tenure research is required to determine where native title could be established to avoid clashes with freehold titles

Once the evidence has been agreed on between the claimants and the relevant government bodies the claim is determined in the High Court or the Federal Court.

In all, more than 250 people, including indigenous elders and community members, were involved in the native title negotiations for parcels of land within the Western Bundjalung nation..

The process is complex even when all parties agree. A report released by the National Native Title Tribunal in 2009 said native title claims take an average of six years to resolve in the Federal Court when all parties agree.

The high levels of evidence needed to prove native title coupled with lengthy court processes and cost have been cited among the main factors that delay native title determinations.

In delivering her judgement, Federal Court Justice Jagot stated that the native title process was still taking too long in New South Wales.

"It's taken six years to get here from the filing of the claim and many years I know in the lead up to the making of that claim," she said. "They've not been easy years".

"I believe that this does perpetuate injustice by other means."


I have drawn together a number of the responses reported in the various media reports.

Gary Brown, a member of one of 10 families who made the joint Western Bundjalung claim, said the unified approach adopted by himself and the other applicants could be the key to getting other claims considered in a more timely manner.

"I think we might set a precedent here," he said. "Where others can be able to look at our claim, and say, pick a few things out of it. So it will be good for them to go ahead."

Applicant Joan Hippi cried tears of joy as the determination was made. "First and foremost, I wish to acknowledge the land we stand on today cause it is a foundation for social, economic and employment outcomes for our future generations," she said. "This is a big thing for us today. This is the start of a new beginning."

Applicant Dave Walker said he would celebrate in the best way he knew how.

"I might just sleep … sleep on my land down here tonight on the side of the river," he said. "I've got no blanket or anything but I'll just go down and make a fire and just sit up and enjoy it, I think. Because it's our land."

The NSW Aboriginal Land Council (NSWALC) welcomed the decision. Tina Williams, NSWALC councillor for the North Coast, said the determination provided rights and recognition for future generations.

‘The Western Bundjalung determination strengthens our connection to country and our ability to teach culture,’ she said. ‘While the claim was lodged in 2011, the fight for land justice and recognition goes back a long way.

‘Our Elders fought tirelessly for this day and I pay respect to those who sadly passed away while the claim was being determined.”

Cr Williams said the determination also showed how Land Rights and Native Title could work together. Today is a great day for Land Rights and Native Title. We may operate under different legislation and systems but we work together.

Jubullum, Baryulgil, Casino Boolange, Grafton Ngerrie, Moombahlene and Jana Ngalee Local Aboriginal Land Councils have been part of this journey.‘When Native Title and Land Rights work together, we can focus on the bigger picture of building our people economically, social and culturally.’

In my introduction, I mentioned that the NSW Land Rights Act and the Federal Native Title legislation both applied in NSW in different ways. The NSWALC and the Local Aboriginal Land Councils are established under the NSW Act.

Terry Robinson is honoured to be looking after his ancestors' country. "Our country, our Jugun, has looked after us and it is now our turn to look after country."

The Native Title Services Corporation (now NTSCorp) has supported the claimants through the processes to gain Native Title. Chief executive Natalie Rotumah, herself a Bundjalung woman, credited the hard work of the western Bundjalung community for their commitment to securing native title.

She paid respect to those original claimants who had passed away since the claim was lodged. “It has been a long fight begun by my grandparents and the other Elders of that generation for recognition as Western Bundjalung Traditional Owners".

Next Steps

This victory is just the first step for the Western Bundjalung. They have to decide how to manage their new rights and responsibilities.

As a first step, the group have established the Ngullingah Jugun (Our Country) Aboriginal Corporation to manage their native title rights and interests. The Corporation will play a key role in representing Western Bundjalung people's interests in negotiations with government and private organisations.

Claimant Graeme Walker said the corporation will be used as a vehicle to have their rightful say about the management of their land. "Any businesses looking to do work in Western Bundjalung country should be coming to us first and we are looking forward to working with them," he said.

There is a difficulty here. While Prescribed Body Corporates are intended to establish an economic base for native title holders on their country, they have not been adequately funded by the Federal Government and has a consequence have struggled to carry out their roles, to maximise the gains that might flow from the native Title decisions.

There is also an issue as to how Ngullingah Jugun Aboriginal Corporation might mesh with the NSW Land Rights system, including the Local Aboriginal Land Council. This will need to be resolved through discussion.